Timeline: Computing Development in Ukraine
Timeline: Computing Development in Ukraine
1914 asd The possibility of mechanizing certain forms of logical reasoning was presented, and demonstrated with a simple machine, by A.N. Shchukarev. Kharkiv Technological Institute.
1941 asd The p-n transition was experimentally discovered by V.E.Lashkariov, Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR. This principle was later independently discovered by American scientists and used in the development of the transistor.
1948 asd The basic structure and principles of constructing a universal stored-program electronic computer were developed (independently from American and British scientists) by S.A.Lebedev. Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR.
1951 asd MESM, the first digital electronic computer in the USSR and in the Continental Europe was formally recognised by the State Committee. S.A.Lebedev, L.N.Dashevskyi, E.A.Shkabara. Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR. The principles of construction and architecture for matrix and vector processor were developed.
1952-1956 asd the first specialized electronic computer in Ukraine for solving systems of linear algebraic equations was created. S.A.Lebedev, Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR. Z.L.Rabinovich, Y.V.Blagovishchenskiy, etc. Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR.
1957 asd "Kiev", the first asynchronous computer in Ukraine to use the address programming language was developed. B.V.Gnedenko, V.M.Glushkov, V.S.Koroliuk, E.L.Yushchenko, L.N.Dashevskiy, E.A.Shkabara, S.B.Pogrebynskiy. Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR (1954-1957).
1961 asd "Dnepr", the first semiconductor-based multipurpose control computer in the USSR and Ukraine was developed (1958-1961). V.M.Glushkov, B.N. Malinovsky, A.G.Kukharchuk, etc. Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR. "Electronmash". It was approved for serial production by the State Commission on December 9, 1961. The birth of “Dnepr” computer was the catalyst for building the first major computer-producing plant in the USSR, known as "Electronmash". “Dnepr” was manufactured for more than 10 years, with over 500 units produced for use in many of the earliest industrial control systems, also in research and other areas. In 1977 the State prize of Ukraine was awarded to a rocket engine testing system based on "Dnepr" (B.N. Malinovsky and employees of the Pivdennyi machine-building plant).
Theory of digital automatons was developed which became a theoretical basis for computer development. V.M.Glushkov. Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR (1961). Glushkov was awarded the Lenin prize for his monograph "Synthesis of digital automatons" and a number of other works in this field (1964).
1963 asd A patent was awarded for the step-based microprogram control. It was implemented in computers of the "MIR" family. V.M.Glushkov. Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR. Parabolic interpolation for system "Avangard" for the automated cutting of ship hull’s details. Chief designer, G.A. Mikhailov. Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR.
1964 asd The first computers in the USSR designed for engineering computations were developed. The models were called "Promin" (1964), "MIR1" (1965), "MIR2" (1969) and "MIR3" (1972). They went into mass production at the Electronmash plant and were the predecessors of personal computers V.M.Glushkov, S.B.Pogrebynskiy, A.O.Letichevskiy, Y.V.Blagovishchenskiy, Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR. 1968 State Prize of the USSR. "Electronmash".
1965 asd "Autooperator", the first digital regulator in the USSR was developed and built. E.T.Belikov. Scientific-production association (SPA) "Impulse".
1966 asd The idea for circuit implementation of high-level languages was first suggested and implemented in the "Ukraine" computer project. V.M.Glushkov, Z.L.Rabinovich, A.A. Stogniy, etc. Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR.
1967 asd "Dnepr-2", the first information-controlling managing system for computer control systems in Ukraine was developed. (1964-1967). V.M.Glushkov, A.A.Stogniy, A.G.Kukharchuk. Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR, "Electronmash". "Kiev 67" and "Kiev 70", unique specialized computers for automation of designing and BIC manufacturing were created. V.P.Derkach and others. Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR. (1965-1970).
1968 asd Digital tools of industrial engineering systems were developed (in the SPA "Impulse"), and serial production began of a family of models M6000 - M7000 ASVT M, which became the basis for building controlling process systems in all spheres of the economy and some military areas of the USSR. During ten years, the Kyiv plant of computer controlling machines, Severodonetsk Instrument Plant and Tbilisi plant of controlling computers produced over 18,000 M6000 systems, the basis for developing more than 15,000 controlling systems. A.A.Novohatniy, V.V.Rezanov etc. SPA"Impulse." State Prize of USSR (1979). The series of specialized and key-driven mini computers "Iskra" was developed and produced. The Ostrovskyi prize (1968). G.I.Kornienko, B.G.Mudla, S.S.Zabara. The Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR. "Schetmash" plant, Kursk.
1969 asd "Kashtan" computers for automated fabric cutting in accordance with specified design were put into production. Y.A.Pavlenko. "Electronmash".
1970 asd The first microcalculator in Ukraine and the Soviet Union with 4 large-scale integrated circuits was developed and put into mass production. S.A.Moraliov, L.F.Marakhovskiy. Kyiv Research and production "Crystal" Company.
1971 asd 12 types of on-board computers (including radiation resistant models) were developed and manufactured for use in strategic rocket-space systems . Lenin Prize, State Prize of the USSR, State Prize of Ukraine. A.I.Krivonosov, B.E.Vasilenko and others. Kharkiv Research and Production Company "Khartron", Kyiv Radioplant (1967-1989).
1972 asd The "Carat" series (4 models) of very reliable specialised computers were developed and put into mass production. These computers were used for weapons and control systems in navy ships and submarines, including atomic ships. The computers were also applied for navigation purposes on trade ships and on atomic ice-breakers. “Carat” computers were incorporated within 60 different systems. V.N.Plotnikov, V.I.Dolgov, G.E.Gai and others. Kyiv Research Institute for Radioelectronics, "Burevesnik" plant (1969-1989). The control and measurement system "Bars" was developed and a small number were produced. Gold medal of Dresden exhibition. V.I.Skurikhin, A.A.Morozov. Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR. UPO-1, the first minicomputer in the Ukraine went into small-scale production. It was the primary processing unit used in measurement systems. B.N.Malinovsky,V.S.Kalenchuk, P.M.Sivachenko. Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR, Zhytomyr plant "Izmeritel". The "Encyclopedia of Cybernetics" was published -- a worldwide first. Academician V.M.Glushkov, A.I.Kukhtenko, B.N. Malinovsky and others. Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR. Specialized key-driven computers "Mria", "Chaika", "Moskva", "Neptun" were developed and produced, starting from 1970. G.S.Golodnyak, V.N.Petrunek, G.T.Makarov etc., Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR. Plants of the Ministry of Defence.
1973 asd The powerful universal computer M4030 was developed and produced. State prize of the Ukrainian SSR (1976). A.F.Nezabitovskiy, S.S.Zabara. "Electronmash", Kyiv. The USSR’s first random access memory (RAM) was developed. (1024 32-bit number to the cycle of 1 ms). A.D.Beh, L.F.Danko, B.S.Ilyushin, E.G.Kretkov, V.M.Korsunsky, B.I.Pavlus, V.N.Pozy, V.I.Plahotny, M. A.Tereshin, V.V.Chernetsky. Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR.
1974 asd The mass production of large-scale integrated circuits began in Ukraine, for the first time in the former Soviet Union and Europe. S.A.Moralev, K.M.Krolevets, V.P.Belyavsky. Kyiv Research and production "Crystal" Company . The USSR’s first series of micro-computers was designed and produced, called "Electronika C5" (C5-1, C5-11, C5-21). B.N.Malinovsky, A.V.Palagin, A.F.Kurgaev. Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR. Principles for constructing computer capable of recursion were presented, for the first time in the world. V.M.Glushkov, V.A.Miasnikov, I.B.Ignatiev. Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR. Academy of Sciences of the USSR.
1975 asd The USSR's first autonomous transportation robot TAIR was developed. It was a three-wheeled motorized vehicle, equipped with a system of sensors, able to move in a natural environment, avoiding obstacles. It was managed by a hardwired neural network. Nikolay Amosov, V.M.Belov, E.M.Kussul. Ukrainian Academy of Sciences.
1976 asd "Neva", the specialized computer for digital communication systems was developed in cooperation with GDR (German Democratic Republic), and produced by GDR industry. A.G.Kukharchuk. Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR, "Robotron", GDR. M 180 ("Sokol"), the first mini computer in Ukraine was developed and produced in small numbers. It was used by the Academy of Sciences of USSR and other institutions to automate laboratory experiments. Ostrovskyi prize (1981). L.B.Malinovsky, V.S.Kalenchuk, N.I.Alishov, Y.S.Yakovlev and others. Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR Mini computer "SOU-1" was developed. V.P.Denisenko, S.D.Pogorely, Korolev Production Association, B.N.Malinovsky, A.V.Palagin, Yu.S.Yakovlev, Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR. Silver Medal UkSSR National Economy. Ukraine's first signal processor for digital signal processing was developed. M.V.Semotyuk. Ukrainian Academy of Sciences. New series of computers CM (12 types) were created by SPA “Impulse”. They replaced computers М6000-М7000. A.A. Novokhatniy, V.V.Ryazanov, others. State Prize of UkSSR (1979) A specialized series of computers called "Cycle" were designed and manufactured. They were used for controlling the production of blades for gas turbine engines. G.I.Kornienko, Y.T.Mitulinsky etc. Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR State Prize of the USSR (1976).
1977 asd System for engineering of computer systems was developed. It was used in a number of organizations in the USSR. (1975-1977). V.M.Glushkov, Y.V.Kapitonova etc., Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR, Ministry of Radio Industry. State Prize of the USSR (1977). Mini computer "Processor" was developed. A.V.Palagin, Ukrainian Academy of Sciences. V.P.Denisenko, S.D.Pogorely, Korolev Production Association.
1978 asd Development of "Sector", a new form of interface between computer hardware components. V.B.Reutov. Ukrainian Academy of Sciences.
1979 asd Microcomputer “UVS-01” was developed. A.V.Kobylinsky, A.V.Palagin, S.D.Pogorely. "Crystal", Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, Korolev Production Association. "Simvol", the first alphanumeric graphic terminal with digital storage on a standard cassette in USSR was developed and produced. L.B.Malinovsky, I.M.Smetanin, A.I.Shikarev, V.N.Knyazev. Ukrainian Academy of Sciences. Cherkassy plant of telegraph equipment.
1980 asd “Neuron”, the first system of microcomputers in Ukraine was developed and produced in large numbers, along with debugging tools CO-01- CO-04. B.N. Malinovsky, O.V.Palagin, S.D.Pogorelyi, V.I.Sigalov, A.I.Slobodianiuk and others. Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR, Ministry of industry and communication means of USSR. Prize of the Ukrainian SSR O.V.Palagin, S.D.Pogorelyi and others (1984). A super powerful multiprocessor system on reconfigurable architecture (ASVT-PS) was created and produced. The model called PS 2000 , followed by PS 2100 (1.5 billion oper./sec) and PS 3000 (3 billion oper./sec) . They were used for systems geophysical mineral exploration and a number of unique systems for military purpose. From 1981 to 1989, 150 PS 2000 complexes were produced by "Impulse". A.A.Novohatny, V.V.Rezanov etc. "Impulse", Severodonetsk (1965-1980). State Prize of UkSSR (1979).
1981 asd The mass production of computing systems SM3 and SM4 for small computers systems began. A.F.Nezabitovsky, V.A.Afanasiev, S.S.Zabara. "Electronmash". State Prize of USSR (1981).
1984 asd "Zvezda" computing system was developed. It was a high-speed computer for hydroacoustic information processing. O.M.Aleshchenko, V.Y.Lapiy, V.V.Kramskiy. Kyiv Research Institute "Hydroprybor". State Prize of the USSR Yu.V.Burau, O.M.Aleschenko etc (1988). Unique specialized on-board computers MIG1, MIG11, MIG12, and MIG13 were developed and produced They were used for controlling systems of space vehicles without any previous calculation of trajectory. G.S.Golodniak, V.N.Petrunek. Academy of Sciences of Ukrainian SSR. Enterprises of Ministry of Defence. State prize of the USSR (1984).
1986 asd Dvelopment and production of compatible microprocessor series of personal computers: EC 1840, EC 1841, EC 1842, for offline use in local and global networks for a wide range of scientific, technical, economic, special problems, problems of management and record keeping. Y.S.Yakovlev, F.A.Tsventuh, N.V.Nesterenko, B.V.Novikov, Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR. Production in Minsk (Belarus). Computer "Delta" - a specialized computer system for the collection and processing of telemetry data, and control of aerospace experiments was developed. Used for processing data received from Halley's Comet, as well as data on the radionuclides situation after the accident at the nuclear power plant in Chernobyl. M.I.Dianov, V.I.Dianov. Ukrainian Academy of Sciences.
1986 asd Development of a real-time processor PRV, used to create four digital systems of control gas puffing, positioning and the plasma parameters in TOKOMAK type thermonuclear facilities in Leningrad, Kharkov and Sukhumi, Moscow and Kharkov PTI It was also used in two international projects developing an experimental thermonuclear reactor (ITER). V.F. Gubarev, V.P. Boyun. Ukrainian Academy of Sciences.
1987 asd A series of specialized computers was created and produced for preflight testing of ships, hydrofoils, for complex boundary sea trials of ships in the Navy, and for the monitoring and diagnosis of aircraft. State Prize of Ukraine. B.G.Mudla, V.I.Dianov, M.I.Dianov, V.F.Berdnikov, A.I.Kanivets, O.M.Shaleyko. Ukrainian Academy of Sciences. Plants of Ministry of Defence. Unique super-productive systems ES-2701 and ES -1766 were designed, created and produced in small numbers. At the time, they had no counterparts in the USSR or abroad. Maximum number of processors was 256. Maximum capability - 500 million operations per second. V.M.Glushkov, V.S.Michalevich, S.B.Pogrebynskiy, A.A.Letichevskiy, Y.V.Kapitonova, I.M.Molchanov. The Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR. Ministry of the radio-building industry of USSR .
1988 asd A system of modules for professional guidance (10 types) for a family of personal computers ES was developed. Modules are functionally and structurally finished products with software support. They are installed in the base unit or expansion unit. Used to link the PC to the object with component interface when building automatic systems for researching and managing various automated processes. Y.S.Yakovlev, N.V.Nesterenko, V.M.Egipko, V.A.Romanov, V.N.Korobeynikov, B.V.Novikov, and others. Ukrainian Academy of Sciences. Was produced in Minsk (Belarus). Development of color alphanumeric and graphical terminal "Parus" with the tape drive. L.B.Malinovsky, I.M.Smetanin, A.I.Shikarev, V.N.Knyazev. Ukrainian Academy of Sciences. Produced by Kyiv Radio plant.
1989 asd Creation of the first neurocomputer in the USSR , modelled on the principle of ensemble stochastic neural networks. E.M.Kussul. Ukrainian Academy of Sciences.
1990 asd Development of highly reliable software and hardware systems to handle critical facilities, nuclear power control systems. "Impulse". Production of family of compatible home PC’s: MK88.01 - MK88.06, suitable for use in the home, in education, in business, leisure and other areas of daily activities as well as for professional fields. Y.S.Yakovlev, F.A.Tsventuh, N.V.Nesterenko, S.V.Bondar, Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. “Kvant”, Minsk. Mass production in Minsk, Belarus.
1997 asd International computer society (IEEE Computer Society) awarded S.A.Lebedev with a medal "Pioneer of Computer Engineering" inscribed: "S.A.Lebedev 1902-1974. Developer and designer of the first computer in Soviet Union. Founder of the Soviet computer industry”. (1997). International computer society (IEEE Computer Society) awarded Victor M.Glushkov with a medal "Pioneer of Computer Engineering" inscribed: "V.M.Glushkov 1923-1982. For the foundation of the first in USSR Institute of Cybernetics, for development of digital automaton theory and for works in the field of macro-conveyor architectures of computer systems” (1997).
2005-2012 asd Development of cluster supercomputer SKIT. Total capacity over 10TFLOPS (more than ten trillion operas./sec.) I.V.Sergienko, V.N.Koval. (2005). I.V.Sergienko, A.L. Golovinskiy (2012). Glushkov Institute of Cybernetics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine.
Prepared by Boris Malinovsky, 2012